Doctor of Philosophy
Date of Defense
Mark Pope, Ed.D.
This study examined attitudes towards forgiveness, assertiveness, and self-esteem as moderators between the tendency to forgive and life satisfaction, physical health, and relational abuse. One hundred and seventy two women recruited online completed measures that assessed self-ratings of the above variables. The tendency to forgive was positively associated with life satisfaction although not associated with physical health or relational abuse. Conversely attitudes towards forgiveness were positively associated with physical health, although not associated with life satisfaction or physical abuse. Assertiveness was positively associated with life satisfaction, although not associated with physical health or relational abuse. Self-esteem was positively associated with life satisfaction and physical health and negatively associated with relational abuse. Interaction analyses indicated that attitudes towards forgiveness moderated the relationship between tendency to forgive and life satisfaction. Specifically, the tendency to forgive was positively associated with life satisfaction only among those with low forgiveness attitudes. Assertiveness and self-esteem failed to moderate relationships between the tendency to forgive and any of the dependent variables: life satisfaction, physical health, and relational abuse. Results suggest that the tendency to forgive may be particularly beneficial for those with low forgiveness attitudes, although the present study is the first to obtain such findings. Implications for counselors and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Whittington, Brandon Lowell, "AN EXAMINATION OF FORGIVENESS ATTITUDES, ASSERTIVENESS AND SELF-ESTEEM IN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FORGIVENESS, RELATIONAL ABUSE, AND WELL-BEING." (2015). Dissertations. 185.