Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Adult & Higher Education

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

John A. Henschke, Ed.D.


David Kimball

E. Paulette Isaac-Savage, Ed.D.

Virginia Navarro, Ph.D.

Lloyd Richardson, Ph.D.


This study investigated the beliefs, feelings, and behaviors of full-time mathematics faculty at community colleges in a Midwestern state. The online questionnaire for this study included the modified Instructional Perspectives Inventory [IPI] (Henschke, 1989; Stanton, 2005). The subscales of the IPI are: (1) Teacher empathy with learners; (2) Teacher trust of learners; (3) Planning and delivery of instruction; (4) Accommodating learner uniqueness; (5) Teacher insensitivity toward learners; (6) Experience-based learning techniques; and, (7) Teacher-centered learning processes. Approximately 23.4% of invited participants responded to the survey, yielding a sample size of 34. Statistical analyses included calculations of mean, standard deviation, and standard error for summative subscale scores and summative overall IPI scores. Using a rankings scale proposed by Stanton (2005) ["Low below average", "below average", "average", "above average", "high above average"], all groups for this study were found to be "average" or "below average" in the application of andragogical / adult education principles. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA's) revealed statistically significant differences for subscales one, two, four, five, and for summative overall IPI scores. Using a reliability rating scale suggested by George and Mallery (as cited in Gliem & Gliem, 2003, p. 87), subscales one through six were interpreted as having "good" or "acceptable" internal consistency. Subscale seven was found to have "questionable" consistency for this population. Recommendations for future research with the IPI include a consideration of the influence of gender, a calculation and interpretation of Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient and the Spearman-Brown prophecy coefficient, and the inclusion of a qualitative research component.

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