The Four Forces Behind Knowles' Andragogy

John Henschke


The career of "the father of adult education" in the U.S., Malcolm S. Knowles, was a phenomenon in itself. Although Knowles is the most referenced adult educator of his time (Sopher, 2003a), he has, at times, also been the most misunderstood adult educator in the U.S. Knowles' (1989b) autobiography provided some in sights into his writing styles, his highly successful career, and his theory of adult education -- the introduction of "andragogy" in the U.S. -- nor did it provide context for a deeper understanding of the times, what influenced his thinking and his contribution major forces that influenced Knowles, which Knowles most likely influenced as well.