Document Type



Andragogy has received mixed reviews in the past. Some have analyzed in from a positive perspective. Some have analyzed it from a negative perspective, and some have ignored it altogether. Most of the discussions have limited their observations to how Malcolm S. Knowles addressed andragogy. There has been an inadequate investigation of the foundation and background of andragogy from a world perspective. This research presents 240 major works published in English from national and international sources on andragogy that may help provide a clear and understandable international foundation for the linkage between the research, theory, and practice of andragogy. Six themes have emerged that provide a foundation for the linkage: The evolution of the term; historical antecedents shaping the concept; comparison of American and European understandings; popularizing and sustaining the American and world-wide concept; practical applications; and theory, research, and definition. This is the yearly update (2008) of this research.

Publication Date

January 2008

Publication Title

American Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AAACE) Conference