Document Type

Book Chapter


confidence, congruence, credible, faith, heart, learning, proverb, trope, trust


The author's research in andragogy started in the late 1960s. More serious in-depth attempts were launched in 1997, just after Malcolm S. Knowles died - the author wanted to honor his legacy since he and his work in andragogy were influential in the author's life. The author's research yielded an instrument with the strongest factor being 'teacher trust of learners' - a belief that applies all the way through k-20 Education. This is found to be so in doctoral dissertations, overarching trust behaviors, and threaded through the literature surrounding trust. Trust is found to be congruent between the author's scholarship and practice. The foundation of this trust is rooted and reflected in the wisdom literature (Proverbs) of the Biblical Scriptures.

Publication Date

January 2013

Publication Title

Handbook of Research on Teaching and Learning in K-20 Education