Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy



Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Alicia M. Beatty, PhD.


Gokel, George

Holmes, Stephen

Chickos, James


The process of molecular transport and intercalation has been widely studied for many years, resulting in the discovery of molecular frameworks that are capable of hosting guest molecules or ions. Layered and porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been found to have applications in the field of catalysis, storage, separations, and ion-exchange. While MOFs are perhaps stronger materials, HMOFs have the advantage of being easily modifiable and more flexible. Because HMOFs have not been extensively studied for their ability to host molecules, and because their ability to withstand guest loss and guest exchange is essentially unknown, here we report the synthesis and molecular transport properties of both close-packed and porous HMOFs. Layered materials can mimic the behavior of naturally occurring clays, where guest molecules are absorbed and the layer will expand to accommodate the entering guest molecule. We have created a clay mimic composed of a metal pyridine-dicarboxylates and ammonium counterions (a layered HMOF), which is suitable for studying the ability of such materials to absorb guest molecules. We can control the distance of the interlayer region, as well as the chemical nature (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) by varying the organic amine. The metal complex contains axial water ligands that are replaceable, and such ligand exchange has precedence in coordination polymer (MOF) systems, and has been termed “coordinative intercalation”. Using the synthesized layered material we examined the process of intercalation, having chosen a variety of guest molecules ranging from alkyl to aryl molecules, each of which have substituents varying in size, shape and electronics. The products have been characterized by TGA, DSC, UV-Vis, and powder XRD. Further work was dedicated to examining porous materials, which were created using organic diamines, rather than simple primary amines, as starting materials. The resulting diammonium cations act as pillars, forming open channels. The stability of the pillared structure in the absence of guests is also reported, as well as the potential for the empty pillared structure to withstand guest re-insertion and removal.

OCLC Number


Included in

Chemistry Commons