Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Education, Counseling

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Susan Kashubeck-West, PhD


Susan Kashubeck-West, PhD

Mary Lee Nelson, PhD

Elizabeth Holloway, PhD

Rocco Cottone, PhD


Clinical supervision sometimes lacks the elements necessary for a rigorous, helpful, and meaningful experience for the supervisee. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the supervisory working alliance, supervisee nondisclosure (i.e., when a supervisee does not communicate information that would otherwise be shared with the supervisor), and counselor burnout, specifically in a sample of counselors, social workers, and psychologists pursuing their original state licenses. Nondisclosure was examined to determine if it was a mediator of the relationship between the supervisory working alliance and burnout. Participants (n = 288) completed a demographic questionnaire, the supervisee form of the Working Alliance Inventory (Bahrick, 1989), the Disclosure in Supervision Scale (Gunn & Pistole, 2012), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1997). Final analyses showed that supervisee nondisclosure did not mediate the relationship between the supervisory working alliance and burnout. However, the supervisory working alliance predicted nondisclosure (b = -.73, p < .001) and burnout (b = -.41, p < .001). Other major findings involving the various subscales of working alliance and burnout are reported and discussed; these have implications for future research, clinical supervision, and training. Limitations are also discussed. The supervisory working alliance seemed to be of utmost importance to developing counselors’ experiences as they pursued their state licenses.