Document Type



This paper describes a study that took place within the context of the Science: Parents, Activities, and Literature (Science PALs) project. Particularly, the study sought to determine answers to the following questions: (1) What are the internal consistencies and substantive, external, and structural validities of students' perceptions, teachers' self-reports, evaluations of videotaped classroom science teaching, and expert ratings? and (2) Can students' perceptions and attitudes and teachers' self-reports be used as acceptable surrogate measures for videotaped interactive constructivist science teaching? Findings suggest that instruments based on social constructivism do not completely and accurately document science teaching based on interactive-constructivist assumptions.

Publication Date

January 1998