Material Type



This work has been superseded by Introduction to Statistics in the Psychological Sciences available from


We are constantly bombarded by information, and finding a way to filter that information in an objective way is crucial to surviving this onslaught with your sanity intact. This is what statistics, and logic we use in it, enables us to do. Through the lens of statistics, we learn to find the signal hidden in the noise when it is there and to know when an apparent trend or pattern is really just randomness. The study of statistics involves math and relies upon calculations of numbers. But it also relies heavily on how the numbers are chosen and how the statistics are interpreted.

This work was created as part of the University of Missouri’s Affordable and Open Access Educational Resources Initiative ( The contents of this work have been adapted from the following Open Access Resources: Online Statistics Education: A Multimedia Course of Study ( Project Leader: David M. Lane, Rice University. Changes to the original works were made by Dr. Garett C. Foster in the Department of Psychological Sciences to tailor the text to fit the needs of the introductory statistics course for psychology majors at the University of Missouri – St. Louis. Materials from the original sources have been combined, reorganized, and added to by the current author, and any conceptual, mathematical, or typographical errors are the responsibility of the current author.

Media Format




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

Sponsoring Institution / Retrieved from Organization

Rice University

OER Category

UMSL OER Adapted

Publication Date


This OER at UMSL

Dr. Garett Foster UMSL Dept. of Psychological Science


This work has been superseded by Introduction to Statistics in the Psychological Sciences available from

Supplemental Materials - (853 kB)
zip file containing the supplemental tables that go along with the book


Retrieved from URL