Eleven groups run under classical, instrumental, pseudoconditioning, CS-only, US-only, and time-lapse procedures, with the ITI illuminated and a color change CS, showed that true classically trained animals do not increase CAR performance with training, whereas instru- mentally trained goldfish do. This is consistent with a phototaxic interpretation suggested in earlier work. Additionally, the finding that CS-only and time-lapse controls show high “acquisi- tion” rates, whereas pseudoconditioning controls do not, not only questions the use of the pseudoconditioning procedure as the sole learning control in this situation, but also questions a learning interpretation itself. Conclusions of what and how, or even if, goldfish learn in this apparatus seem premature.
Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society
Zerbolio, Dominic and Wickstra, L, "Does Elimination of a Negative Phototaxis Eliminate CAR Acquisition in Goldfish?" (1978). Psychology Faculty Works. 38.