Goldfish, run in a Y-maze, with the simultaneous presentation of a cue associated with shock and a second cue associated with safety (no US), acquired a decided preference for the safe cue. These data are interpreted as representing a clear demonstration of stimulus-specific conditioned avoidance. Because earlier research has been challenged by unusual control performances, this instrumental learning conclusion is hesitantly drawn.
Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society
Zerbolio, Dominic and Wickstra, L, "Instrumentally Based Conditioned Avoidance Response Acquisition in Goldfish in a Simultaneous Presentation Task" (1979). Psychology Faculty Works. 41.