Faculty Sponsor

Tareq Al Rabei

Final Abstract for URS Program

This research paper focuses on how women are being controlled by society pressures and expectations from men, and how the phrase “torches of freedom,” was challenging gender inequality. I have found while doing this research paper how the phrase torches of freedom was influenced from the roots of gender inequality. The first part of the research paper discusses how the history of the smoking campaigns were made in order for women to smoke publicly without fear from judgment. This demonstrates the necessary historical background of the smoking campaign that was designed. Also, how the smoking campaigns were planned out in detail to attract women to the idea of public smoking. The second part of this research paper talks about First Wave Feminism and how it had a huge effect on how the smoking campaigns were made. Laws and difficulties of women during these times were mentioned in the paper and how they had a difficult life. The third part of this paper mentions how women wanted to overcome the stigma of how smoking was seen as masculine. The male gaze was explained, and how men wanted to see women in a particular image that they wanted for them to always stay inferior. The idea of women wanting to have authoritative and dominant characteristics because they are symbolized with smoking was clear in this research.

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