Document Type



The purpose of the research was to investigate the influences of actuation parameters and formulation physical properties on nasal spray delivery performance using design of experiment (DOE) methodology. A 3-level, 4-factor Box-Behnken design with a total of 27 experimental runs was used in this study. Nine simulated aqueous formulations with different viscosities and surface tensions were prepared using carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC, gelling agent) and Tween80 (surfactant) each at three concentration levels. Four factors, actuation stroke length, actuation velocity, concentration of gelling agent, and concentration of surfactant were investigated for their influences on measured responses of shot weight, spray pattern, plume geometry and droplet size distribution (DSD). The models based on data from the DOE were then optimized by eliminating insignificant terms. Pfeiffer nasal spray pump units filled with the simulated formulations were used in the study. Nasal pump actuation stroke length exerts a strong, independent influence on shot weight, and also slightly affects spray pattern and plume geometry. Actuation velocity and concentration of gelling agent have significant effects on spray pattern, plume geometry and DSD, in a complicated manner through interaction terms. Concentration of surfactant has little, if any, influence on nasal spray characteristics. Results were fitted to quadratic models describing the inherent relationships between the four factors evaluated and nasal spray performance. The DOE study helped us to identify the source of variability in nasal spray product performance, and obtained better understanding in how to control the variability. Moreover, the quadratic models developed from the DOE study quantitatively describe the inherent relationships between the factors and nasal spray performance characteristics. With the assistance of the response surfaces developed from the DOE model, the time and labor in designing a nasal spray product to achieve desired product performance characteristics can be reduced.

Publication Date

January 2008

Publication Title

European Journal of Pharamceutical Sciences



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