Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Mary Edwin


Phillips Waalkes

Emily Brown

Rowhea Elmisky


Muslim Americans have been subjected to systemic oppression and unjust experiences, such as discrimination, racism, hate crimes, and stereotypes, for generations in the United States. Although ample research has investigated relationships between systemic oppression in society and its impacts on marginalized students in public school environments, little research has directly investigated Muslim students' school experiences. Additionally, studies and scholarship have explored the long-term impacts of systemic oppression on marginalized groups to develop a comprehensive understanding of minority groups’ experiences in the United States. This study investigated Muslim students’ experiences in public high schools regarding their sense of belonging and other long-term experiences related to their career decision-making. Given the marginalized status of Muslim students, the social experiences investigated in this research are aimed to include the influences of systemic racism and discrimination. Using a sample of 180 Muslim students who attend public schools in the United States, we conducted a quantitative, descriptive, and multivariate correlational design to explore the relationship between perceived discrimination, sense of belonging, and career decision-making self-efficacy. Findings revealed that higher levels of perceived discrimination suggested lower levels of sense of belonging. Additionally, lower levels of sense of belonging correlated with lower self-efficacy in career decision-making.