Document Type



Doctor of Education


Educational Practice

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Dr. Paulette Isaac-Savage


Dr. Jennifer McKanry

Dr. Michael Porterfield


This quantitative study investigates instructors' perceptions of the factors influencing technology integration in their instruction, spanning the years 2019-2023, encompassing the transition from virtual to in-person learning after COVID-19. It examines technology integration barriers and supports experienced by instructors in the Midwestern United States, namely Missouri, during this period. Additionally, it explores how the virtual learning experience during the pandemic has influenced instructors' self-perceptions of their digital competence. The study encompasses three education sectors: K-12, adult education, and higher education, providing a unique multi-sector perspective. By delving into the post-COVID-19 educational environment, this research aims to offer valuable insights. The methodology involved an online survey.

Results of this study show that despite the abrupt transition to remote learning due to COVID-19, barriers such as lack of time and training that have been identified in previous studies (Basarmak et al., 2020; Ertmer et al., 2012; Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010) for decades still prove to have a large impact on the ability of educators to effectively integrate technology in their instruction. It echoes the importance of addressing barriers such as time constraints and emphasizes the need for comprehensive professional development programs, especially in the post-COVID landscape. The findings suggest that institutions should prioritize dedicated time and consistent support for technology integration, particularly in the evolving post-pandemic educational landscape.