Document Type



Doctor of Education


Educational Practice

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Kathleen Brown, Ph.D.


Carole Murphy


Kathleen Brown

Helene Sherman

Gwendolyn Turner


This study examined the college and career readiness of high school graduates who, as struggling first grade readers, successfully completed a specific, research based literacy intervention. By examining students’ Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) scores (2002–2009), ACT PLAN test results from 10th grade, ACT test scores from 11th or 12th grade, and course enrollment throughout their high school careers, the degree to which the students were prepared to enter college or the work force was examined. College and career readiness was defined using guidelines and benchmarks outlined in the Common Core State Standards (National Governors Association Center for Best Practice, 2010) and those determined by the ACT corporation (ACT, 2013). This study sought to link literacy intervention efforts in grades K–1 to the college and career readiness of students as they graduate high school. It also sought to add to the body of knowledge regarding literacy instruction and intervention and the nationwide focus to ensure that all students are college and career ready as they graduate high school. The study found that the majority of the students who received early literacy intervention were reading at grade level by the end of eighth grade. However, few of the students studied met college and career readiness benchmarks by the time they graduated high school.

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