Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Psychology, Industrial and Organizational

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Miles L. Patterson


Jim Breaugh, Ph.D.

Mark Tubbs, Ph.D.

Michael Beatty, Ph.D.


The effects of feedback valence (positive or negative) across culture (Individualistic or Collectivistic) for both the verbal and nonverbal communication channels on performance appraisal outcomes were investigated. It was hypothesized that participants would react differently to the performance appraisal they received based on (1) their own cultural values and on (2) the valence of the verbal feedback and nonverbal feedback provided by the manager. Main effects of both verbal feedback valence and nonverbal feedback valence were predicted and found. Participants reported more positive reactions to both the performance appraisal process and to the manager after receiving positive feedback than after receiving negative feedback regardless of the communication channel (verbal or nonverbal) used. Predicted interactions between feedback valence and communication channel and also between culture, feedback valence, and communication channel were not found. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. As business becomes more global, organizations often enter unfamiliar countries using practices that previously worked in a country that may have held very different values, limiting their ability to maximize the benefits of the performance appraisal and potentially leading to negative outcomes. This research was an attempt to help organizations better understand how to improve one important organizational process, the performance appraisal, as they expand globally.

OCLC Number


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Psychology Commons