Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Education, Teaching-Learning Processes

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Carl Hoagland, Ph.D.


Wolfgang Althof, Ph.D.

Keith Miller, Ph.D.

Margaret Scordias, Ed.D.


Technology in schools is not a new phenomenon, however, whether technology integration is successful or not is up for debate. Critics of technology in the classroom write about failed attempts to integrate technology into the classroom in a meaningful way. Research indicates that we still have teachers using technology in ways that may not be much different than traditional teaching practices.

The literature describes varying levels of technology usage in the classroom. Some researchers describe technology as overrated and not fulfilling the promise to improve the teaching and learning experience. Other research describes unique uses of technology that promote engaging and useful learning experiences. However, there appears to be a gap in the research when trying to determining how teachers and students feel about the effectiveness of the technology integration happening in the classroom.

The purpose of this study was to document how teachers and students perceive the effectiveness of technology integration happening in the classroom. Various forms of data were collected and analyzed. The data included an online survey, personal interviews with teachers and students, classroom observations, and documents and artifacts that were collected during the classroom observations.

The researcher, using techniques commonly associated with grounded theory data analysis was able to identify four main categories. They are 1.) shared experience, 2.) technology integration readiness, 3.) educational uses of technology, and 4.) obstacles to technology integration. These categories along with their subcategories, properties, and dimensions help to explain what is happening when technology is being used in a middle school classroom and ultimately helped the researcher answer the research questions.

After analyzing all of the data, it suggests that teachers are mostly satisfied with the way they are using technology in the classroom and they are happy with the technology integration training they receive. The teachers’ main motivation to use technology is to promote engaging and exciting activities for their students. However, the data also suggests that students are not necessarily motivated by the simple act of using technology. In many cases, the students are motivated by personal interests and entertainment, not the technology itself.