Document Type



Doctor of Education



Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Cody Ding, Ph.D.


Kathleen M. Haywood, Ph. D.

John A. Henschke, Ed. D.

Carole Murphy, Ed. D.

Kenneth E. Owen, Ed. D.


Abstract In higher education, teachers’ teaching effectiveness in the classroom is an essential to improve the quality of higher education. However, teachers’ teaching effectiveness comes from the personal motivation, perception, and satisfaction in the teachers’ jobs. The merit incentive compensation system is directly linked to teachers’ motivation and perception, which also directly or indirectly results in satisfaction with teachers’ career and students’ learning in the classroom. This study investigates the factors in teachers’ performance evaluated in Chinese classrooms by students and teachers, and teachers’ demographic characteristics (DC), which impact on teachers’ merit pay, and teachers’/students’ satisfaction. Study participants were Chinese students and teachers working in or enrolled in one of four different higher education systems from 2012 to 2013 semesters in Nanjing, China. Our sample contains 457 teachers and 9,017 students. The data was collected via online questionnaires. Henschke’s Modified Instructional Perspectives Inventory (MIPI) (Henschke, 1989) was used to evaluate teachers’ performance in the classroom from instructional perspectives. The MIPI includes seven factors: Factor 1: Teacher Empathy with Students; Factor 2: Teacher Trust of Students; Factor 3: Planning and Delivery of Instruction; Factor 4: Accommodating Student Uniqueness; Factor 5: Teacher Insensitivity toward Students; Factor 6: Experience-Based Learning Techniques (Learner-Centered Learning Process); and Factor 7: Teacher-Centered Learning Process. The MIPI-s, an adaptation of the MIPI, was used to evaluate student’s perceptions of teacher performance in the classroom from an instructional perspective. Students and teachers reported satisfaction with learning and teaching using a Likert-type scale in a demographic questionnaire. This study utilized a quantitative approach with standard multiple regression analysis. There were three dependent variables: teachers’ merit pay, teachers’ satisfaction, and students’ satisfaction. The independent variables included DC factors related to teachers’ motivation and perception, and seven factors of MIPI and MIPI-s with 45-items respectively. The results of regression analyses demonstrated significant relationships as a whole between teachers’ merit pay and teachers’/students’ satisfaction with teaching/learning, factors in teachers’ demographic characteristics, and seven factors of MIPI/MIPI-S respectively.

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