Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Dr. R. Rocco Cottone


Dr. R. Rocco Cottone

Dr. Susan Kashubeck-West

Dr. Mary Lee Nelson

Dr. Molly Stehn


Counselor supervision is an integral component in the development of counselors. While counseling and supervision share some similarities, they are distinct competencies that develop separately and therefore must be measured separately. The belief that one can perform the tasks associated with a particular role is conceptualized as self-efficacy, so supervisor self-efficacy requires its own scale to be measured appropriately. A descriptive correlational survey research design was used to examine the six factor structure of the Counselor Supervisor Self-Efficacy Scale (CSSES). Two hundred and five counselor supervisors completed the CSSES, an impression management scale, and a demographic survey. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to determine the goodness-of-fit of the six-factor model, and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify alternative factor structures for the CSSES. Results did not support five-, six-, seven-, or eight-factor models, but may provide evidence for a single underlying factor. Findings, limitations, implications for counseling, and areas for future research are also presented and discussed.

OCLC Number