Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Psychology, Industrial and Organizational

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Stephanie Merritt


Garett Foster

John Meriac

Alice Hall


For centuries people have been trying to find ways to effectively manage their time. Meanwhile, research in this area has lagged and provided inconsistent results about the outcomes (i.e., well-being and job performance) of the use of time management behaviors. A potential reason for the inconsistent results is the lack of a universal conceptualization of time management making it difficult to compare results. Further, it may be that certain groups use and/or interpret time management behaviors in different ways. This study investigated three of the most popular measures of time management concurrently. First, the measures were examined for statistical artifacts, specifically violations of measurement equivalence, using a combination of confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory data analysis approaches. Specific hypotheses concerning groups of interest for this study (gender, age, temporal awareness) were tested with measures that included equivalent items only. Finally, based on evidence that time management may be dispositional in nature (Shahani et al., 1993; Claessens et al., 2007), the time management measures were analyzed using an ideal point response model based on increasing evidence that personality measures are better served by this model (Stark, Chernyshenko, Drasgow, and Williams, 2006; Carter et al., 2014). Finally, directions for future research and implications for future measurement of time management are discussed based on findings.