Document Type



Doctor of Education


Educational Practice

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Helene Sherman, Ed.D.


Charles Granger, Ph.D.

Keith Miller, Ph.D.


A quasi-experimental study explored whether the practice of cognitive behavioral coaching with an intentional focus on nonverbal immediacy has an impact on the self-efficacy of undergraduate students taking college-level STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) courses. A positive impact to self-efficacy for students who receive the coaching intervention was anticipated. The research took place at a public research university located in the Midwest. Subjects included students who were required to work with a success coach as a condition of their enrollment and/or financial aid eligibility. Information obtained included perception of nonverbal immediacy of the coaches and self-efficacy of the student, as determined by existing assessments called, Nonverbal Immediacy Scale – Observers and Self-Efficacy for Learning Form – Abridged version. Success coaches provided the coaching intervention to students through a prescribed protocol of at least four face-to-face meetings throughout the semester with regular contact via email and phone. Students participated in the coaching interventions as mentees. Students received support by coaches to supplement their academic pursuits. Paired t-Tests (see Table 7) did not confirm that there was a significant difference between the pre-assessment scores, and the post-assessment scores; therefore, the null hypotheses were not rejected.