Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy


Psychology, Industrial and Organizational

Date of Defense


Graduate Advisor

Matthew Taylor, PhD


Bettina Casad, PhD

Stephanie Merritt, PhD

Susan Kashubeck-West, PhD


This study examined the individual factors that affect the recognition of gender microaggressions in the workplace. A total of 220 subjects participated in this study. Specifically, this study revealed how social dominance orientation, ambivalent sexism and gender discrimination perceptions toward women affect a third-party observer’s recognition of gender microaggressions perpetrated against women. In addition, this study examined the effect of role congruence on the propensity to recognize gender microaggressions. Role congruence stems from role congruity theory which posits that a woman in a leadership or masculine role will receive positive or negative evaluations based on the degree to which she conforms to her gender stereotype. The results demonstrated significant negative correlations between SDO, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and the recognition of gender microaggressions. Gender discrimination perceptions were also positively correlated with recognition of gender microaggressions. Results however did not support the prediction that males and females differ in the recognition of gender microaggressions. In that same vein, role congruity did not significantly interact with the independent variables as expected. Reasons for the support or lack thereof of hypotheses are discussed as well as results of additional analyses. Implications for research and practice are also discussed along with some suggestions for future studies.